Facts

What is Sarcoma?

by Jeffrey Toretsky, M.D.
June 30, 2020
what is sarcoma

Dr. Jeffrey Toretsky is a St. Baldrick’s researcher at the Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center in Washington, D.C. He explains what sarcoma is, how it’s diagnosed and treated, and how research is helping kids and adults with this type of cancer.

What is sarcoma?

A sarcoma is a bumpy tumor that occurs in the connective tissues (nerves, muscles and bones) anywhere in the body.

Sarcomas are rare, especially in young children. In kids between 10 and 20, sarcomas make up about 20-25% of childhood cancer diagnoses.

Sarcomas can start off being tiny lumps that you can’t feel. They can spread through the body, or metastasize, before they grow big enough to be seen.

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Facts

What Is Retinoblastoma?

by Murali Chintagumpala, M.D. and Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, M.D.
May 11, 2020

Dr. Chintagumpala’s specific interests include the management of children with all brain tumors, retinoblastoma, bone tumors and kidney tumors. He serves as chair of the Retinoblastoma Sub-Committee for the Children’s Oncology Group and is a leader in conducting clinical trials involving children with brain tumors and Retinoblastoma.

Dr. Rodríguez-Galindo is a member of the St. Baldrick’s Scientific Advisory Committee. His research focuses on retinoblastoma, bone sarcomas, histiocytic disorders and rare childhood cancers.

what is retinoblastoma

What is Retinoblastoma?

Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the eye that only occurs in children and typically in very young children. Two-thirds of retinoblastoma patients are diagnosed before they’re 2 years old and more than 90% are diagnosed before turning 5.

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Facts

What Is Medulloblastoma?

by Elias Sayour, M.D., Ph.D. and Agnes Petrosiute, M.D.
May 1, 2020

Dr. Sayour and Dr. Petrosiute are both St. Baldrick’s Scholars. This blog was written by Dr. Petrosiute in May 2014 and updated in April 2020 by Dr. Sayour.

What is medulloblastoma?

Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. It originates in the back part of the brain called the cerebellum. In up to 1/3 of cases, it can spread to other parts of the brain and spinal cord. Most cases are diagnosed before age 10.

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Facts

What Is Wilms Tumor?

by Elizabeth Perlman, MD and Jeffrey S. Dome, MD, PhD.
March 10, 2020
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What is Wilms tumor?

Wilms tumor is a cancer of the kidney. It is one of the most common types of childhood cancer, with approximately 500 new patients a year in the United States alone. It was named after German surgeon Max Wilms, who is credited with discovering the cancer in 1899. There are several other less common types of kidney cancer that affect children and teenagers. These include clear cell sarcoma, malignant rhabdoid tumor, and renal cell carcinoma.

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Facts

What Is Neuroblastoma?

by St. Baldrick's Foundation
January 31, 2020
What is Neuroblastoma graphic

Susan L. Cohn, M.D., chair of the St. Baldrick’s Scientific Advisory Committee and world renowned neuroblastoma expert, explains what neuroblastoma is and how St. Baldrick’s research is contributing to better outcomes for patients.

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Facts

What Is Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)?

by Elliot Stieglitz, M.D.
October 11, 2018

What is JMML

Dr. Elliot Stieglitz is a St. Baldrick’s Fellow at the University of California, San Francisco. He’s researching ways to help kids with JMML who don’t respond to standard treatment. He explains JMML symptoms, treatment options, and how your support is moving research forward.

What is JMML?

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a type of blood cancer that affects young children.

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Facts

What Is Ewing Sarcoma?

by St. Baldrick's Foundation
March 9, 2018

What is Ewing sarcoma?


Jason Yustein, M.D., Ph.D., a St. Baldrick’s Scholar at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, explains Ewing sarcoma symptoms, treatment options, and research opportunities.

What is Ewing sarcoma?

Ewing sarcoma is a type of childhood cancer that is most frequently found in children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 20 years old.

Ewing sarcoma — the second most common bone cancer after osteosarcoma — often originates in the long, large bones of the body, including the hip, thigh, shin, chest, and arm bones.

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Facts

What Is Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG)?

by Adam Green, M.D.
September 22, 2017

What is DIPG
Dr. Green is a St. Baldrick’s Scholar at the University of Colorado. He explains DIPG symptoms, treatment, and how research is helping kids with this type of childhood cancer.

What is DIPG?

DIPG stands for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. It is a type of high-grade glioma, a brain tumor that comes from cells called glia that surround, protect, and otherwise support the nerve cells in the brain.

DIPG is always found in the brainstem. This part of the brain controls many basic functions like breathing and swallowing, as well as muscles that help with speech and eye movements.

It is most common in elementary school-aged children, but it can affect children of any age.

Learn more about childhood cancer >

About 250 kids in the U.S. are diagnosed with DIPG each year.

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Facts

What Is Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia?

by Edward Allan R. Sison, M.D.
March 9, 2017

what is Ph+ALL

Dr. Edward Allan Sison, a former St. Baldrick’s Fellow, is a faculty member at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s Cancer Center. He’s researching ways to make chemotherapy more effective in children with high-risk leukemias. He explains APL leukemia symptoms, treatment options, and how your support is moving research forward to help kids with this disease.

What is acute promyelocytic leukemia?

Leukemia is a cancer of the white blood cells. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) comes from a type of white blood cells called promyelocytes.

Normal promyelocytes will grow up into white blood cells that fight off infection. In APL, the promyelocytes forget that they are supposed to grow up, and instead multiply at a very fast rate.

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Facts

What Is Philadelphia Chromosome Positive ALL?

by Gordon Cohen M.D., M.P.H.
February 20, 2017

what is Ph+ALL

Dr. Gordon Cohen is a St. Baldrick’s Fellow at the John Hopkins Children’s Center. He’s testing new drugs for patients with Ph+ALL who relapse or fail to respond to treatment. He explains Ph+ALL symptoms, treatment options, and how your support is moving clinical trials forward to help kids with this disease.

What is Ph+ALL?

Philadelphia Chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ALL) is a rare subtype of the most common childhood cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

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