Facts

What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)?

by Benjamin Mizukawa, M.D.
September 3, 2021
What is acute myeloid leukemia?

Dr. Mizukawa is a past St. Baldrick’s Scholar. He explains acute myeloid leukemia symptoms, treatment, and research progress

What is acute myeloid leukemia (AML)?

Leukemia is cancer of the blood cells. Leukemia cells divide quickly and fail to mature into normal, functioning blood cells.

Acute leukemia progresses rapidly and is classified into two general subtypes:

  • When the cancer affects the lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, it is called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or ALL.
  • When the cancer affects other blood cell types, such as red blood cells, platelet-forming cells, and other types of white blood cells, it is called acute myeloid leukemia, or AML.

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Facts

What Is Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)?

by St. Baldrick's Foundation
August 12, 2021
What is acute lymphoblastic leukemia?

What is acute lymphoblastic leukemia?

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the white blood cells that normally fight infection. The cells do not grow and develop properly, filling up the bone marrow inside bones, where blood is normally made.

ALL is the most common type of childhood cancer, accounting for 35% of all cancers in children. Each year, there are about 2,900 new cases of children and adolescents diagnosed with ALL in the United States alone.

See how Phineas survived ALL because of research supported by St. Baldrick’s >

Its signs and symptoms resemble other common illnesses, which often leads to other treatments before the leukemia diagnosis is made.

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Facts

What Is Sarcoma?

by Jeffrey Toretsky, M.D.
June 30, 2021
what is sarcoma

Dr. Jeffrey Toretsky is a St. Baldrick’s researcher at the Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center in Washington, D.C. He explains what sarcoma is, how it’s diagnosed and treated, and how research is helping kids and adults with this type of cancer.

What is sarcoma?

A sarcoma is a bumpy tumor that occurs in the connective tissues (nerves, muscles and bones) anywhere in the body.

Sarcomas are rare, especially in young children. In kids between 10 and 20, sarcomas make up about 20-25% of childhood cancer diagnoses.

Sarcomas can start off being tiny lumps that you can’t feel. They can spread through the body, or metastasize, before they grow big enough to be seen.

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Facts

What Is Pineoblastoma?

by St. Baldrick's Foundation
May 25, 2021

Facts

What Is Retinoblastoma?

by Murali Chintagumpala, M.D. and Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, M.D.
May 11, 2020

Dr. Chintagumpala’s specific interests include the management of children with all brain tumors, retinoblastoma, bone tumors and kidney tumors. He serves as chair of the Retinoblastoma Sub-Committee for the Children’s Oncology Group and is a leader in conducting clinical trials involving children with brain tumors and Retinoblastoma.

Dr. Rodríguez-Galindo is a member of the St. Baldrick’s Scientific Advisory Committee. His research focuses on retinoblastoma, bone sarcomas, histiocytic disorders and rare childhood cancers.

what is retinoblastoma

What is Retinoblastoma?

Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the eye that only occurs in children and typically in very young children. Two-thirds of retinoblastoma patients are diagnosed before they’re 2 years old and more than 90% are diagnosed before turning 5.

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Facts

What Is Medulloblastoma?

by Elias Sayour, M.D., Ph.D. and Agnes Petrosiute, M.D.
May 1, 2020

Dr. Sayour and Dr. Petrosiute are both St. Baldrick’s Scholars. This blog was written by Dr. Petrosiute in May 2014 and updated in April 2020 by Dr. Sayour.

What is medulloblastoma?

Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. It originates in the back part of the brain called the cerebellum. In up to 1/3 of cases, it can spread to other parts of the brain and spinal cord. Most cases are diagnosed before age 10.

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Facts

What Is Wilms Tumor?

by Elizabeth Perlman, MD and Jeffrey S. Dome, MD, PhD.
March 10, 2020
What-Is-Wilms-Tumor.png

What is Wilms tumor?

Wilms tumor is a cancer of the kidney. It is one of the most common types of childhood cancer, with approximately 500 new patients a year in the United States alone. It was named after German surgeon Max Wilms, who is credited with discovering the cancer in 1899. There are several other less common types of kidney cancer that affect children and teenagers. These include clear cell sarcoma, malignant rhabdoid tumor, and renal cell carcinoma.

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Facts

What Is Neuroblastoma?

by St. Baldrick's Foundation
January 31, 2020
What is Neuroblastoma graphic

Susan L. Cohn, M.D., chair of the St. Baldrick’s Scientific Advisory Committee and world renowned neuroblastoma expert, explains what neuroblastoma is and how St. Baldrick’s research is contributing to better outcomes for patients.

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Facts

What Is Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML)?

by Elliot Stieglitz, M.D.
October 11, 2018

What is JMML

Dr. Elliot Stieglitz is a St. Baldrick’s Fellow at the University of California, San Francisco. He’s researching ways to help kids with JMML who don’t respond to standard treatment. He explains JMML symptoms, treatment options, and how your support is moving research forward.

What is JMML?

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a type of blood cancer that affects young children.

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Facts

What Is Ewing Sarcoma?

by St. Baldrick's Foundation
March 9, 2018

What is Ewing sarcoma?


Jason Yustein, M.D., Ph.D., a St. Baldrick’s Scholar at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, explains Ewing sarcoma symptoms, treatment options, and research opportunities.

What is Ewing sarcoma?

Ewing sarcoma is a type of childhood cancer that is most frequently found in children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 20 years old.

Ewing sarcoma — the second most common bone cancer after osteosarcoma — often originates in the long, large bones of the body, including the hip, thigh, shin, chest, and arm bones.

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