Dr. Matthew Barth is a St. Baldrick’s Scholar at the University of Buffalo in Buffalo, New York. He is studying ways to help kids with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who don’t respond to treatment.
What is non-Hodgkin lymphoma?
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer of white blood cells called lymphocytes. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma generally involves the lymph nodes, but can also involve many other organs, including the bones, bone marrow, liver, spleen, brain and skin.
There are many types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Children tend to have more aggressive forms of the disease, while adults frequently have less aggressive forms. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is very rare in children younger than 3 years old and is seen more often in adolescents.
What is osteosarcoma?
Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer in children. It often originates in the long bones of the body that includes the thigh bone, the shinbone, or the bone that runs from the shoulder to the elbow, called the humerus.
While osteosarcoma frequently starts in a particular bone, it can potentially move to other sites in the body, such as the lungs and other bones. This movement, known as metastasis, often makes the disease more difficult to treat.
A type of childhood cancer, osteosarcoma is commonly found in children and adolescents. Patients who are 10-20 years of age account for 60% of osteosarcoma cases.
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What is medulloblastoma?
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. It originates in the back part of the brain called the cerebellum. In up to 1/3 of cases, it can spread to other parts of the brain and spinal cord.
Most cases are diagnosed before age 10.
Dr. Mizukawa is a St. Baldrick’s Scholar. He explains acute myeloid leukemia symptoms, treatment, and research progress
What is acute myeloid leukemia (AML)?
Leukemia is cancer of the blood cells. Leukemia cells divide quickly and fail to mature into normal, functioning blood cells.
Acute leukemia progresses rapidly and is classified into two general subtypes:
- When the cancer affects the lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, it is called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or ALL.
- When the cancer affects other blood cell types, such as red blood cells, platelet-forming cells, and other types of white blood cells, it is called acute myeloid leukemia, or AML.
Dr. Rodríguez-Galindo is a member of the St. Baldrick’s Scientific Advisory Committee. His research has been focused on retinoblastoma, bone sarcomas, histiocytic disorders, and rare childhood cancers, and he is currently the Chair of the Rare Tumors Committee at the Children’s Oncology Group (COG).
What is Retinoblastoma?
Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the eye that occurs only in children, and typically in very young children. Two-thirds of retinoblastoma patients are diagnosed before they are 2 years old, and more than 90% are diagnosed before the age of 5.
What is alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma?
There are two main types of pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma: embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
- Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) occurs most often in children under 10 years old and is found in the head, neck, urinary tract, or reproductive organs. It is the most common type.
- Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is more aggressive, occurs more commonly in teens or young adults, and usually starts in the torso, arms, or legs.
Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue cancer in children, with approximately 350 new cases each year in the United States.
What is embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma?
Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) is a malignant soft tissue tumor that is formed from embryonic skeletal muscle tissue, the type of tissue that grows into skeletal muscles.
When we think about skeletal muscles, we might first think of biceps or hamstrings, but embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma doesn’t usually start in the arms or legs. Most often, we see tumors in the head or neck, bladder, or reproductive organs.
We asked Dr. Jean Mulcahy Levy, a St. Baldrick’s Scholar, about astrocytoma, a type of childhood cancer. Read her explanation of astrocytoma symptoms, treatment options, and research opportunities.
What is astrocytoma?
Astrocytoma is a type of tumor that can happen in the brain or spinal cord. They are one of the most common brain tumors seen in children, with approximately 700 children diagnosed with low-grade astrocytoma — a slow-growing tumor — each year.
What is high-grade glioma?
High-grade gliomas are a diverse group of tumors of the brain and spinal cord that occur in children of all ages. This type of childhood cancer grows rapidly and has the ability to spread through brain tissue aggressively, making it very difficult to treat.
High-grade gliomas are classified by their location and by the appearance of the tumor under microscopic examination. This classification helps to assign a prognosis for the patient, but overall prognosis is poor for all types of high-grade gliomas.
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